Category - Denial of Service

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The DDoS landscape: where we are, and where we’re going
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2018 In the Rearview Mirror
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5 biggest security vulnerabilities of 2018
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Security Think Tank: Smart botnets resist attempts to cut comms
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6 Network Security Challenges in the Year Ahead
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Most UK retailers plan to up cyber security
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2018 In Review: Healthcare Under Attack
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Nokia: IoT Botnets Comprise 78% of Malware on Networks
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The CoAP protocol is the next big thing for DDoS attacks
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60 Cybersecurity Predictions For 2019

The DDoS landscape: where we are, and where we’re going

If a week is a long time in politics, as former British Prime Minister Harold Wilson observed, a year in cyber security can seem like an eternity. But despite the rapid changes, many things remain constant. We can always expect cyber criminals to embrace new technology as fast as legitimate businesses do, and to use it to launch new types of attacks that are ever more damaging and harder to defend against.

DDoS attacks are a case in point. In April 2018, the UK’s National Crime Agency named DDoS as the leading threat facing businesses. The Agency noted the sharp increase in attacks on a range of organisations during 2017 and into 2018, and advised organisations to take immediate steps to protect themselves against the escalating threat.

DDoS gets bigger, stronger, smarter

This warning was timely, as through late 2017 and into 2018, DDoS attacks got much larger – and that trend is showing no signs of slowing down. In Q3 of 2018, the average DDoS attack volume more than doubled compared to Q1, from 2.2 Gbps to 4.6 Gbps according to Link11´s latest DDoS Report. These attack volumes are far beyond the capacity of most websites, so this is an alarming trend. Compared to Q2, the total number of attacks also grew by 71% in Q3, to an average of over 175 attacks per day.

Attacks also got more sophisticated. 59% of DDoS incidents in Q3 of 2018 used two or more attack vectors, compared with 46% in Q2. Meanwhile, a highly targeted and strategic approach to DDoS attacks was observed as the year went on; our operation centre saw DDoS attacks on e-commerce providers increase by over 70% on Black Friday (23 November) and by a massive 109% on Cyber Monday (26 November) compared with the November average. Attacks are focusing on specific sectors, with the aim of causing more disruption.

DDoS as a service

At the same time, these larger, more sophisticated DDoS attacks are easier for criminals to launch than ever before too, from DDoS-as-a-Service provider. Perhaps the best known of these, Webstresser.org was selling multi-gigabit DDoS attacks on the Darknet for as little as $11 per attack before it was shut down by police in early 2018. Webstresser’s services were used in early 2018 to bring online services from several Dutch banks and numerous other financial and government services in the Netherlands to a standstill. Customers were left without access to their bank accounts for days.

Other services have sprung up to take Webstresser’s place, offering DDoS by the hour for $10, and by the day at bulk discount rates of $200. No expertise is required: just enter your (stolen) credit card details, and the domain you want to target. Even cloud services can be knocked offline, with very little money and little to no technical expertise required to launch an attack.

Web application attacks

Another increasingly targeted component of organisations’ IT estates during 2018 was web applications. 2018 saw high-profile breaches affecting tens of millions of customers from several high-profile companies in the travel and financial sectors. The aim of these attacks is to exfiltrate sensitive data for re-use or resale, with the attackers seeking to exploit weaknesses in the application itself, or the platform it is running on to get access to the data.

2019: predictions and protection

So as 2018 saw attacks growing in volume and complexity, what attacks can we expect to see in 2019?

We have already seen how versatile botnets are for crypto-mining and sending spam – this will extend into DDoS attacks too. Botnets benefit from the ongoing rapid growth in cloud usage and increasing broadband connections as well as the IoT, and the vulnerabilities that they address are on the protocol and application level and are very difficult to protect using standard network security solutions. Bots in public cloud environments can also propagate rapidly to build truly massive attacks.

Attack tactics, for which SSL encryption have long since ceased to be a defence, will gain even more intelligence in the coming months. The only possible answer to this can be defence strategies that cover machine learning and artificial intelligence, which can process large data streams in real time and develop adaptive measures. Highly-targeted attacks, such as those on web applications, will also continue because the rewards are so high – as we’ve seen from the 2018 data breaches we touched on earlier.

Also, 2019 could be the year in which a hacktivist collective or nation-state will launch a coordinated attack against the infrastructure of the internet itself. The 2016 DDoS attack against hosting provider Dyn showed that a single attack against a hosting provider or registrar could take down major websites. DDoS tools and techniques have evolved significantly since then, creating a very real risk of attacks that could take down sections of the Web – as shown by the attack which targeted ISPs in Cambodia. Other forms of critical infrastructure are also vulnerable to DDoS exploits, as we saw in 2018’s attack on the Danish rail network.

In conclusion, tech innovations will continue to accelerate and enable business, and cyber criminals will also take advantage of those innovations for their own gain. With more and more business taking place online, dependence on a stable internet connection rises significantly. Likewise, revenues and reputation are more at risk than ever before. Therefore, organisations must be proactive and deploy defences that can keep pace with even new, unknown threats – or risk becoming the next victim of increasingly sophisticated, highly targeted mega-attacks.

 

Source: https://www.information-age.com/the-ddos-landscape-123478142/

2018 In the Rearview Mirror

Among this year’s biggest news stories: epic hardware vulnerabilities, a more lethal form of DDoS attack, Olympic ‘false flags,’ hijacked home routers, fileless malware – and a new world’s record for data breaches.

It was a year that shook IT security experts and users out of their post-holiday cheer as soon as they got back to their desks after the new year began, with the disclosure of a new and widespread class of hardware attack that affected most computers worldwide.

In addition, the long tail of the now-infamous Spectre and Meltdown vulns continued to haunt the security industry all year, with more findings exposing security flaws in hardware and related side-channel attack scenarios. Mass updates to operating systems, browsers, and firmware ensued – often with performance trade-offs.

A researcher at Black Hat USA this summer also added a new spin to hardware hacking when he demonstrated how he cracked CPU security controls to gain kernel-level control, aka “God mode.”

What else? Deceptive cyberattacks became a new M.O. for nation-states this year: Russia’s GRU military hacking team posed as North Korean hackers in a widespread targeted attack against the Winter Olympics in South Korea. They employed destructive malware to knock out the games’ IT systems, Wi-Fi, monitors, and ticketing website.

Meanwhile, Russia was up to its old tricks with another novel and destructive campaign: Some 500,000 home and small-office routers and network-attached storage (NAS) devices worldwide were discovered infected as part of a massive botnet. The so-called VPNFilter attack infrastructure included stealthy, modular components that infect, spy, steal, and self-destruct. The initial target appeared to be Ukraine, where the majority of infected Internet of Things (IoT) devices were found, but the losing battle of getting consumers to update or patch their home and IoT devices was a chilling wake-up call.

2018 also featured a new more damaging form of distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack that exploits unprotected Memcached servers, as well as the new reality of attackers “living off the land” with so-called fileless malware attacks, using legitimate tools such as PowerShell to do their hacking. These malware-free attacks increased by 94% in the first half of the year, and they don’t show any signs of slowing down.

And those are just some of the biggest news stories of 2018. For a closer look at yet another year to remember, check out Dark Reading’s new report, “The Year in Security: 2018,”

Source: https://www.darkreading.com/threat-intelligence/2018-in-the-rearview-mirror/a/d-id/1333532

5 biggest security vulnerabilities of 2018

2018 brought massive, hardware-level security vulnerabilities to the forefront. Here’s the five biggest vulnerabilities of the year, and how you can address them.

2018 was a year full of headaches for IT professionals, as security vulnerabilities became larger and more difficult to patch, since software mitigations for hardware vulnerabilities require some level of compromise. Here’s the five biggest security vulnerabilities of 2018, and what-if anything-you can do to address them in your organization.

1. Spectre and Meltdown dominated security decisions all year

On January 4, the Spectre and Meltdown vulnerabilities allowing applications to read kernel memory were disclosed, and posed security problems for IT professionals all year, as the duo represented largely hardware-level flaws, which can be mitigated-but not outright patched-through software. Though Intel processors (except for Atom processors before 2013, and the Itanium series) are the most vulnerable, microcode patches were necessary for AMD, OpenPOWER, and CPUs based on Arm designs. Other software mitigations do exist, though some require vendors to recompile their programs with protections in place.

The disclosure of these vulnerabilities sparked a renewed interest in side-channel attacks requiring manipulative or speculative execution. Months later, the BranchScope vulnerability was disclosed, focusing on the shared branch target predictor. The researchers behind that disclosure indicated that BranchScope provides the ability to read data which should be protected by the SGX secure enclave, as well as defeat ASLR.

Between the initial disclosure, Spectre-NG, Spectre 1.2, and SpectreRSB, a total of eight variants were discovered, in addition to related work like SgxPectre.

2. Record-breaking DDoS attacks with memcached

Malicious actors staged amplification attacks using flaws in memcached, reaching heights of 1.7 Tbps. The attack is initiated by a server spoofing their own IP address-specifying the attack target address as the origin address-and sending a 15-byte request packet, which is answered by a vulnerable memcached server with responses ranging from 134KB to 750KB. The size disparity between the request and response-as much as 51,200 times larger-made this attack particularly potent.

Proof-of-concept code, which can be easily adapted for attacks was published by various researchers, among them “Memcrashed.py,” which integrates with the Shodan search engine to find vulnerable servers from which you can launch an attack.

Fortunately, it is possible to stop memcached DDoS attacks, though users of memcached should change the defaults to prevent their systems from being abused. If UDP is not used in your deployment, you can disable the feature with the switch -U 0. Otherwise, limiting access to localhost with the switch -listen 127.0.0.1 is advisable.

3. Drupal CMS vulnerability allows attackers to commandeer your site

A failure to sanitize inputs resulted in the announcement of emergency patches for 1.1 million Drupal-powered websites in late March. The vulnerability relates to a conflict between how PHP handles arrays in URL parameters, and Drupal’s use of a hash (#) at the beginning of array keys to signify special keys that typically result in further computation, allowing attackers to inject code arbitrarily. The attack was nicknamed “Drupalgeddon 2: Electric Hashaloo” by Paragon Initative’s Scott Arciszewski.

In April, the same core issue was patched for a second time, relating to the URL handling of GET parameters not being sanitized to remove the # symbol, creating a remote code execution vulnerability.

Despite the highly publicized nature of the vulnerability, over 115,000 Drupal websites were still vulnerable to the issue, and various botnets were actively leveraging the vulnerability to deploy cryptojacking malware.

ZDNet’s Catalin Cimpanu broke a story in November detailing a new type of attack which leverages Drupalgeddon 2 and Dirty COW to install cryptojacking malware, which can proliferate due to the number of unpatched Drupal installations in the wild.

4. BGP attacks intercept DNS servers for address hijacking

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), the glue that is used to determine the most efficient path between two systems on the internet, is primed to become the target of malicious actors going forward, as the protocol was designed in large part before considerations of malicious network activity were considered. There is no central authority for BGP routes, and routes are accepted at the ISP level, placing it outside the reach of typical enterprise deployments and far outside the reach of consumers.

In April, a BGP attack was waged against Amazon Route 53, the DNS service component of AWS. According to Oracle’s Internet Intelligence group, the attack originated from hardware located in a facility operated by eNet (AS10297) of Columbus, Ohio. The attackers redirected requests to MyEtherWallet.com to a server in Russia, which used a phishing site clone to harvest account information by reading existing cookies. The hackers gained 215 Ether from the attack, which equates to approximately $160,000 USD.

BGP has also been abused by governments in certain circumstances. In November 2018, reports indicated that the Iranian government used BGP attacks in an attempt to intercept Telegram traffic, and China has allegedly used BGP attacks through points of presence in North America, Europe, and Asia.

Work on securing BGP against these attacks is ongoing with NIST and DHS Science and Technology Directorate collaborating on Secure Inter-Domain Routing (SIDR), which aims to implement “BGP Route Origin Validation, using Resource Public Key Infrastructure, [which] can address and resolve the erroneous exchange of network routes.”

5. Australia’s Assistance and Access Bill undermines security

In Australia, the “Assistance and Access Bill 2018,” which provides the government “frameworks for voluntary and mandatory industry assistance to law enforcement and intelligence agencies,” basically provides government access to the contents of encrypted communication. It is essentially the definition of a self-inflicted wound, as the powers it provides the government stand to undermine confidence in Australian products, as well as the Australian outposts of technology companies.

The bill hastily passed on December 7 and was touted as necessary in the interest of “safeguarding national security,” though subtracting perpetrators. Australia has seen a grand total of seven deaths related to terrorist activities since 2000. Additionally, the bill permits demands to be issued in relation to “the interests of Australia’s foreign relations or the interests of Australia’s national economic well-being.”

While the bill appears to not provide the full firehose of user data unencrypted to government agencies, it does permit the government to compel companies to provide content from specific communication, though forbids the disclosure of any demands made to companies about compliance. Stilgherrian provides a balanced view of the final bill in his guide on ZDNet.

Source: https://www.techrepublic.com/article/5-biggest-security-vulnerabilities-of-2018/

Security Think Tank: Smart botnets resist attempts to cut comms

As attackers begin to use multiple command and control systems to communicate with backdoors and other malware, how can organisations ensure that they detect such methods and that all C&C systems are removed, including “sleepers” designed to be activated at a future date.

When it comes to all kinds of cyber defence, it is always less expensive to prevent attacks and infections than to deal with them once they are in place.

This is especially true in the case of botnets. What is a botnet? A botnet is an army of mini-programs; malicious softwaredesigned to infiltrate large numbers of digital devices and then use them for any number of tactics.

For example, botnets can be instructed to steal data or launch huge distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks and all while simultaneously stealing the electricity and computing power to do it.

Most organisations aim to have at least some cyber security in place. These fundamentals can include Items such as implementing the most effective choice of anti-malware, configuring digital devices and software with as much hardened security as practical and ensuring that security patches are always applied swiftly.

However, even when an organisation invests in implementing cyber security essentials, it is still no guarantee of a fully bot-free environment.

As shown in all of the major breaches that hit the headlines, hackers are very keen on remaining unnoticed for as long as possible. The dwell time is the term given to the duration between the initial intrusion and the point of discovery.

In many cases, Yahoo, Starwood and other mega breaches included, you might have noticed that the dwell time was measured not in hours, days, weeks or even months – it was years between the initial intrusion and eventual discovery.

Determined hackers design their bots to be as stealthy as possible, to hide as best as they can and to communicate as efficiently and discreetly as possible.

When researchers find new botnet armies, they often do it by accident and say things like, “We stumbled across this data anomaly”, eventually tracing the cause back to a new botnet force.

Although botnet communications may try to hide, the thing about bots is that they generally need to communicate to work. These botnets used to work through command and control servers. That meant that disconnecting communications between bots and their botnet command and control servers was enough to “decapitate” the bot and render it unable to steal anything or accept new commands.

However, newer botnets are smarter. They still need to communicate, but now many of them can spawn dynamic, peer-to-peer networks.

Bots do still need instructions to work and they also need destinations to send anything they steal. Identify and block those communication routes and your bots will cease to offer their bot master any value.

The challenge is that not all organisations use or install the technologies that can detect and block bots.

For the few organisations that do have the budget and motivation to ramp up their anti-bot defences, there is plenty that can be done.

It starts with ramping up the security that prevents initial infection and locking down unnecessary trust permissions. Prevention is still better than detection and the expenses involved in containing and resolving the threat. There is a huge difference in the efficacy of many security products and sadly, many of those with the highest marketing budget are far from the most effective.

There are also great, real-time security technologies that can detect, alert or block botnet activity in real-time. These operate by continually analysing network traffic and local system logs.

If your organisation does not have the budget for real-time monitoring, then it is still worth inspecting devices and checking for any suspicious processes that seem to be taking up a lot of memory – especially if any users are reporting their device has slowed down. That can be an indicator of compromise, but only when the botnet is awake and active.

And if you are wondering just how much of a threat botnets are, just think about this: most of our attention as cyber security professionals is on the botnets we can detect and eliminate from our own environments, but the internet of things and sub-standard security present in many devices means the internet is riddled with enough botnets to effectively stop the internet from working.

The only thing stopping that from happening at present is that it would harm rather than profit the hackers. After all, 2019 might just be the year when the proceeds from cyber crime reaches a trillion dollars.

Source: https://www.computerweekly.com/opinion/Security-Think-Tank-Smart-botnets-resist-attempts-to-cut-comms

6 Network Security Challenges in the Year Ahead

The network security threat landscape in 2019 is expected to look much like it did in 2018. Here’s a look at six network security challenges for 2019 for businesses and individual users to keep in mind.

In many ways, the network security threat landscape in 2019 will look much like it did in 2018. From viruses to DDoS attacks, even when threats aren’t multiplying in number year over year, they’re managing to become more sophisticated and damaging. Here’s a look at six network security challenges for 2019 for businesses and individual users to keep in mind.

1. A Greater Amount of Sensitive Traffic Than Ever

In a 2018 survey, PwC reported that mobile channels were the only segment that saw growth that year among banking customers. In other words, demand for mobile-friendly banking tools is higher than ever. That means a lot of very sensitive data flowing over public and private networks.

In 2018, security experts from Kaspersky discovered what appeared to be a years-long router-hacking campaign performed by as-yet-unknown cyber-assailants. Researchers discovered digital fingerprints all over the world indicating that routers in public places had been subtly hacked to allow kernel-level access for any device connected to it.

Kernel-level access is the deepest access possible, indicating that the data being sought here was highly personal — including, potentially, banking transactions and communication records.

2. Worms and Viruses

Viruses and worms are some of the most well-known network security challenges. In 2015, Symantec estimated that as many as one million new malware threats are released into the wild every day or a total of 217 million in a calendar year.

In 2017, AV-Test released research indicating that the number of new malware threats had declined for the first time ever, down to 127 million over the year.

Viruses can lay dormant until the user performs an action that triggers it, meaning there’s not always an indication that something’s even amiss. Worms infect specific files, such as documents, and self-replicates itself once it’s inside a target system.

For individual internet users, network architects and IT specialists, anti-virus and anti-malware programs are still necessary for keeping this class of threats at bay. For IT departments especially, high-profile computer bugs are a reminder that a vast majority of attacks target unpatched software and out-of-date hardware. The number of new threats might be gradually declining, but the severity of these threats hasn’t abated.

3. Compelling Students to Enter the STEM Fields

Let’s switch focus for a moment and look at the next generation of people who will detect, fix and communicate about modern threats on the digital seas. All of the STEM fields are vital to national competitiveness but, of the top college majors ranked by a number of job prospects, computer science takes first place.

According to the National Bureau of Economic Research, skills obtained in the fields of math, science and technology are increasingly transferable to, and relevant in, a wide variety of industries and potential career paths. Part of the reason is the ubiquity of technology and the rate of data exchange across the world, which powers commerce, finance, and most other human endeavors.

Unfortunately, the NBER has also indicated that the U.S. requires many more STEM students than it currently has, in order to compete in a digital and globalized world.

The number and types of cyber threats are a huge part of the reason why, with world powers and unknown parties engaging in cyber-espionage and attempted hacking at regular intervals, against both private and public infrastructure. Making a stronger push to get kids interested in these fields will also help address unemployment and opportunity gaps in struggling communities.

4. DDoS Attacks

For companies whose business model revolves around selling digital services, or selling anything else online for that matter, DDoS attacks can be crippling, not to mention ruinously expensive due to lost revenue.

DDoS attacks have made a lot of news recently thanks to WannaCry and others, but the motivation behind them seems to be shifting. Perpetrators today are less concerned with crippling a target’s infrastructure and more interested, potentially, in using DDoS attacks as a distraction while they carry out more sophisticated penetration attempts without interference.

Either way, using the Internet of Things to overwhelm an organization’s digital infrastructure is a type of network security threat became more common in 2017 than in 2016 — up 24 percent — with no obvious signs of relenting. Early detection is the best weapon, as are Web Application Firewalls. Both solutions require either an attentive in-house IT team or effective collaboration with your service provider.

5. Cryptojacking

Cryptocurrencies are either worthless or about to take off in a big way. But despite the uncertainty over its future, the limited applications, and the slow adoption rate, “crypto-jacking” is becoming a favorite pastime of hackers.

Cryptojacking occurs when a malicious app or script on a user’s digital device mines cryptocurrency in the background without the user’s knowledge or permission. “Mining” cryptocurrency requires a fair amount of hardware power and other resources, meaning users who’ve been cryptojacked will find that their programs and devices don’t work as expected.

Worse, the sheer variety of techniques used to introduce cryptojacking scripts into counterfeit and even legitimate web and mobile applications is positively dizzying. And since they come in all shapes and forms, cryptojacking attacks could well have other underhanded intentions beyond mining cryptocurrencies, including accessing forbidden parts of the code or sensitive user information.

6. Bring Your Own Device

Let’s close with a few words of advice about BYOD — bring your own device — policies in the workplace. There are clear benefits to allowing employees to use their favorite devices at work, including higher productivity and morale. But doing so also introduces a panoply of potential security threats.

IT departments already struggle sometimes with keeping computers and devices patched and updated, and the public struggles even more. Thanks to the fragmented nature of the Android operating system, for instance, “most” Android phones and tablets in operation today are not running the latest security fixes, according to security vendor Skycure.

Your employees and your business have a lot to gain from implementing BYOD. But doing so requires a comprehensive set of rules for employees to abide by, including turning on auto-updates for OS patches, completing training on how to respond to phishing attempts and other cybersecurity threats, and delivering regular reminders about good password hygiene.

No network security threat is insurmountable, but most of them do require vigilance — and in most cases, a great IT team or a security-minded vendor.

Source: https://www.readitquik.com/articles/security-2/6-network-security-challenges-in-the-year-ahead/

Most UK retailers plan to up cyber security

The majority of UK retailers are planning to increase cyber security measures during the Christmas season, a survey reveals

Retailers plan to increase cyber security measures during the holiday season, according to a poll of IT professionals in the sector in the UK, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg and the US.

Some 63% of UK and 62% of German retailers claimed to increase cyber security measures during the holiday season, according to the survey, commissioned by IT automation and security firm Infoblox.

The main reason cited for the increase by one-third of respondents in these countries was a seasonal rise in social engineering attacks, which were also identified as a dominant concern for 25% of IT professionals in the Netherlands’ retail sector.

Other kinds of attack cited were social media scams, distributed denial of service (DDoS) and ransomware.

Social media scams were of most concern in the US (19%), followed by the UK (15%), the Netherlands (14%) and Germany (12%).

DDoS attacks were of greatest concern in the Netherlands (20%), followed by Germany (17%), the UK (12%) and the US (7%).

Ransomware was of greatest concern in the US (12%), followed by Germany (11%), the UK (10%) and the Netherlands (9%).

The research found that among the main threats posed to networks within the UK were unpatched security vulnerabilities (28%), online consumers themselves (25%) and internet-connected devices (21%).

Within the UK, artificial intelligence (43%) was cited as the technology most likely to be implemented within the next year, followed by internet-connected devices (35%), portable media technology (24%), omni-channel technology (23%) and augmented reality (17%).

The majority of IT decision-makers in the UK (55%) said they were concerned about new technologies, in stark contrast to those in the Netherlands, where only 20% claimed to be concerned.

The survey also polled consumers on their experiences and attitudes towards online data privacy and security while shopping online.

Although most global consumers shop online to some degree, 17% do nothing to protect their data while doing so. The UK is the most complacent, with just one in five taking no proactive action to protect their data. German consumers are more cautious when shopping online, with more than half (53%) shopping only on secured Wi-Fi networks.

“The level of online shopping activity always increases significantly during the holiday season, and can provide rich pickings for the opportunistic cyber criminal, so it’s no coincidence that more than half of retailers will increase their cyber security spending during their most prosperous and dangerous time of year,” said Gary Cox, technology director, western Europe at Infoblox.

“It is critical that enterprises take measures to get additional network visibility, so they can respond quickly to potential cyber incidents which could result in lost revenue and brand damage.”

IT professionals in the UK named unpatched security vulnerabilities as the main source of an attack (28%), followed by consumer/end-user error (25%), vulnerabilities in the supply chain (22%), and unprotected internet-connected devices (21%).

When holiday shopping, delivery is the biggest point of concern for UK consumers (55%), followed by ID fraud (16%), data security (13%) and website crashing (13%).

Just 48% of UK consumers said they were only “somewhat” or “not at all” aware of the data being collected through store loyalty cards, while only 34% claimed to trust retailers to hold their personal data.

“It is interesting that so few consumers around the world are actively concerned with the protection of their own data when shopping online, particularly when two-thirds of those we surveyed had little trust in how retailers held that data,” said Cox.

“More education is clearly required about the risks that online shoppers face, especially over Christmas, and the steps they can take to better protect their own data and identity from those intent on theft and fraud.”

Source: https://www.computerweekly.com/news/252454330/Most-UK-retailers-plan-to-up-cyber-security

2018 In Review: Healthcare Under Attack

Radware’s ERT and Threat Research Center monitored an immense number of events over the last year, giving us a chance to review and analyze attack patterns to gain further insight into today’s trends and changes in the attack landscape. Here are some insights into what we have observed over the last year.

Healthcare Under Attack

Over the last decade there has been a dramatic digital transformation within healthcare; more facilities are relying on electronic forms and online processes to help improve and streamline the patient experience. As a result, the medical industry has new responsibilities and priorities to ensure client data is kept secure and available–which unfortunately aren’t always kept up with.

This year, the healthcare industry dominated news with an ever-growing list of breaches and attacks. Aetna, CarePlus, Partners Healthcare, BJC Healthcare, St. Peter’s Surgery and Endoscopy Center, ATI Physical Therapy, Inogen, UnityPoint Health, Nuance Communication, LifeBridge Health, Aultman Health Foundation, Med Associates and more recently Nashville Metro Public Health, UMC Physicians, and LabCorp Diagnostics have all disclosed or settled major breaches.

Generally speaking, the risk of falling prey to data breaches is high, due to password sharing, outdated and unpatched software, or exposed and vulnerable servers. When you look at medical facilities in particular, other risks begin to appear, like those surrounding the number of hospital employees who have full or partial access to your health records during your stay there. The possibilities for a malicious insider or abuse of access is also very high, as is the risk of third party breaches. For example, it was recently disclosed that NHS patient records may have been exposed when passwords were stolen from Embrace Learning, a training business used by healthcare workers to learn about data protection.

Profiting From Medical Data

These recent cyber-attacks targeting the healthcare industry underscore the growing threat to hospitals, medical institutions and insurance companies around the world. So, what’s driving the trend? Profit. Personal data, specifically healthcare records, are in demand and quite valuable on today’s black market, often fetching more money per record than your financial records, and are a crucial part of today’s Fullz packages sold by cyber criminals.

Not only are criminals exfiltrating patient data and selling it for a profit, but others have opted to encrypt medical records with ransomware or hold the data hostage until their extortion demand is met. Often hospitals are quick to pay an extortionist because backups are non-existent, or it may take too long to restore services. Because of this, cyber-criminals have a focus on this industry.

Most of the attacks targeting the medical industry are ransomware attacks, often delivered via phishing campaigns. There have also been cases where ransomware and malware have been delivered via drive-by downloads and comprised third party vendors. We have also seen criminals use SQL injections to steal data from medical applications as well as flooding those networks with DDoS attacks. More recently, we have seen large scale scanning and exploitation of internet connected devicesfor the purpose of crypto mining, some of which have been located inside medical networks. In addition to causing outages and encrypting data, these attacks have resulted in canceling elective cases, diverting incoming patients and rescheduling surgeries.

For-profit hackers will target and launch a number of different attacks against medical networks designed to obtain and steal your personal information from vulnerable or exposed databases. They are looking for a complete or partial set of information such as name, date of birth, Social Security numbers, diagnosis or treatment information, Medicare or Medicaid identification number, medical record number, billing/claims information, health insurance information, disability code, birth or marriage certificate information, Employer Identification Number, driver’s license numbers, passport information, banking or financial account numbers, and usernames and passwords so they can resell that information for a profit.

Sometimes the data obtained by the criminal is incomplete, but that data can be leveraged as a stepping stone to gather additional information. Criminals can use partial information to create a spear-phishing kit designed to gain your trust by citing a piece of personal information as bait. And they’ll move very quickly once they gain access to PHI or payment information. Criminals will normally sell the information obtained, even if incomplete, in bulk or in packages on private forums to other criminals who have the ability to complete the Fullz package or quickly cash the accounts out. Stolen data will also find its way to public auctions and marketplaces on the dark net, where sellers try to get the highest price possible for data or gain attention and notoriety for the hack.

Don’t let healthcare data slip through the cracks; be prepared.

Source: https://securityboulevard.com/2018/12/2018-in-review-healthcare-under-attack/

Nokia: IoT Botnets Comprise 78% of Malware on Networks

Nokia is warning of a deluge of IoT malware after revealing a 45% increase in IoT botnet activity on service provider networks since 2016.

The mobile networking firm’s Threat Intelligence Report for 2019 is is based on data collected from its NetGuard Endpoint Security product, which it says monitors network traffic from over 150 million devices globally.

It revealed that botnet activity represented 78% of malware detection events in communication service provider (CSP) networks this year, more than double the 33% seen in 2016.

Similarly, IoT bots now make up 16% of infected devices on CSP networks, a near-five-fold increase from 3.5% a year ago.

“Cyber-criminals are switching gears from the traditional computer and smartphone ecosystems and now targeting the growing number of vulnerable IoT devices that are being deployed,” said Kevin McNamee, director of Nokia’s Threat Intelligence Lab. “You have thousands of IoT device manufacturers wanting to move product fast to market and, unfortunately, security is often an afterthought.”

This is a threat that first came to light with the Mirai attacks of 2016, when the infamous IoT malware sought out and infected tens of thousands of smart devices protected only by factory default passwords.

That ended up launching some of the largest DDoS attacks ever seen, although Nokia also called out crypto-mining as a potential new use of IoT botnets made up of compromised smartphones and web browsers.

“Cyber-criminals have increasingly smart tools to scan for and to quickly exploit vulnerable devices, and they have new tools for spreading their malware and bypassing firewalls. If a vulnerable device is deployed on the internet, it will be exploited in a matter of minutes,” McNamee warned.

IoT adoption is expected to accelerate with 5G, potentially exposing even more devices to cyber risk, Nokia claimed.

Yossi Naar, co-founder at Cybereason, argued that attackers can also use compromised IoT endpoints to move into corporate networks and high-value servers.

“Simply put, security needs to be a primary design consideration, as fundamental as any other measure of performance,” he added. “There should be a focus on tight mechanisms for strong authentication and the minimization of the potential attack surface. It’s a fundamental design philosophy that responsible companies have, but it’s not a reflex for all companies — yet.”

Source: https://www.infosecurity-magazine.com/news/iot-botnets-78-of-malware-on/

The CoAP protocol is the next big thing for DDoS attacks

CoAP DDoS attacks have already been detected in the wild, some clocking at 320Gbps.

RFC 7252, also known as the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP), is about to become one of the most abused protocols in terms of DDoS attacks, security researchers have told ZDNet.

If readers don’t recognize the name of this protocol that’s because it’s new –being formally approved only recently, in 2014, and largely unused until this year.

WHAT IS COAP?

CoAP was designed as a lightweight machine-to-machine (M2M) protocol that can run on smart devices where memory and computing resources are scarce.

In a very simplistic explanation, CoAP is very similar to HTTP, but instead of working on top of TCP packets, it works on top of UDP, a lighter data transfer format created as a TCP alternative.

Just like HTTP is used to transport data and commands (GET, POST, CONNECT, etc.) between a client and a server, CoAP also allows the same multicast and command transmission features, but without needing the same amount of resources, making it ideal for today’s rising wave of Internet of Things (IoT) devices.

But just like any other UDP-based protocol, CoAP is inherently susceptible to IP address spoofing and packet amplification, the two major factors that enable the amplification of a DDoS attack.

An attacker can send a small UDP packet to a CoAP client (an IoT device), and the client would respond with a much larger packet. In the world of DDoS attacks, the size of this packet response is known as an amplification factor, and for CoAP, this can range from 10 to 50, depending on the initial packet and the resulting response (and the protocol analysis you’re reading).

Furthermore, because CoAP is vulnerable to IP spoofing, attackers can replace the “sender IP address” with the IP address of a victim they want to launch a DDoS attack against, and that victim would receive the blunt force of the amplified CoAP traffic.

The people who designed CoAP added security features to prevent these types of issues, but as Cloudflare pointed out in a blog post last year, if device makers implement these CoAP security features, the CoAP protocol isn’t so light anymore, negating all the benefits of a lightweight protocol.

That’s why most of today’s CoAP implementations forgo using hardened security modes for a “NoSec” security mode that keeps the protocol light, but also vulnerable to DDoS abuse.

THE RISE OF COAP

But because CoAP was a new protocol, a few hundreds of vulnerable devices here and there would have never been a problem, even if all were running in NoSec modes.

Unfortunately, things started to change. According to a talk that Dennis Rand, founder of eCrimeLabs, gave at the RVAsec security conference over the summer (19:40 mark), the number of CoAP devices has exploded since November 2017.

Rand says the CoAP device count jumped from a lowly 6,500 in November 2017 to over 26,000 the next month. Things got even worse in 2018 because by May that number was at 278,000 devices, a number that today is hovering at 580,000-600,000, according to Shodan, a search engine for Internet-connected devices.

coap-shodan.png

Rand suggests the reason for this explosion is CoAP’s use as part of QLC Chain (formerly known as QLink), a project that aims build a decentralized blockchain-based mobile network using WiFi nodes available across China.

But this sudden rise in readily available and poorly secured CoAP clients hasn’t gone unnoticed. Over the past few weeks, the first DDoS attacks carried out via CoAP have started to leave their mark.

A security researcher who deals with DDoS attacks but who couldn’t share his name due to employment agreements told ZDNet that CoAP attacks have happened on an occasional basis over the past months, with increasing frequency, reaching 55Gbps on average, and with the largest one clocking at 320Gbps.

The 55Gbps average is an order of magnitude superior to the average size of a normal DDoS attack, which is 4.6Gbps, according to DDoS mitigation firm Link11.

Of the 580,000 CoAP devices currently available on Shodan today, the same researcher told ZDNet that roughly 330,000 could be (ab)used to relay and amplify DDoS attacks with an amplification factor of up to 46 times.

Of the attacks the researcher has recorded, most have targeted various online services in China, but also some MMORPGs platforms outside of mainland China.

It is unclear if CoAP has been added as an attack option to DDoS-for-hire platforms, but once this happens, such attacks will intensify even more.

Furthermore, CoAP’s use in the real world has exploded this year but was mainly restricted to China. It is safe to assume that once CoAP has already become popular in China, today’s main manufacturing hub, vulnerable devices will also spread to other countries as devices made in the communist state are sold overseas.

WE’VE BEEN WARNED

Just like with the case with most protocols developed with IoT in mind, the issue doesn’t seem to reside in the protocol design, which includes some basic security features, but in how device makers are configuring and shipping CoAP in live devices.

Sadly, this isn’t something new. Many protocols are often misconfigured, by accident or intentionally, by device makers, which often choose interoperability and ease of use over security.

But the thing that will annoy some security researchers is that some predicted this would happen even before CoAP was approved as an official Internet standard, way back in 2013.

This was a totally avoidable disaster if only countries around the world had more stringent rules about IoT devices and their security features.

On a side note –and coincidentally– as CoAP DDoS attacks are now beginning to get noticed, Federico Maggi, a security researcher with Trend Micro, has also taken a look at CoAP’s DDoS amplification capabilities, research which he’s set to present at the Black Hat security conference this week in London.

The same research also looked at a fellow M2M protocol, MQTT, also known to be a mess, and in which the researcher has identified several vulnerabilities.

Source: https://www.zdnet.com/article/the-coap-protocol-is-the-next-big-thing-for-ddos-attacks/

60 Cybersecurity Predictions For 2019

I’ve always been a loner, avoiding crowds as much as possible, but last Friday I found myself in the company of 500 million people. The breach of the personal accounts of Marriott and Starwood customers forced us to join the 34% of U.S. consumers who experienced a compromise of their personal information over the last year. Viewed another way, there were 2,216 data breaches and more than 53,000 cybersecurity incidents reported in 65 countries in the 12 months ending in March 2018.

How many data breaches we will see in 2019 and how big are they going to be?

No one has a crystal ball this accurate and it’s difficult to make predictions, especially about the future. Still, I made a brilliant, contrarian, and very accurate prediction last year, stating unequivocally that “there will be more spectacular data breaches” in 2018.

Just like last year, this year’s 60 predictions reveal the state-of-mind of key participants in the cybersecurity industry (on the defense team, of course) and cover all that’s hot today. Topics include the use and misuse of data; artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning as a double-edge sword helping both attackers and defenders; whether we are going to finally “get over privacy” or see our data finally being treated as a private and protected asset; how the cloud changes everything and how connected and moving devices add numerous security risks; the emerging global cyber war conducted by terrorists, criminals, and countries; and the changing skills and landscape of cybersecurity.

It’s the data, stupid

“While data has created an explosion of opportunities for the enterprise, the ability to collaborate on sensitive data and take full advance of artificial intelligence opportunities to generate insights is currently inhibited by privacy risks, compliance and regulation controls. The security challenge of ‘data in use’ will be overcome by applying the most universal truth of all-time—mathematics—to facilitate data collaboration without the need for trust from either side. For example, ‘zero-knowledge proof’ allows proof of a claim without revealing any other information beyond what is claimed. Software that is beyond trust and based on math will propel this trend forward”—Nadav Zafrir, CEO,Team8

“IT security in 2019 is no longer going to simply be about protecting sensitive data and keeping hackers out of our systems. In this day and age of big data and artificial intelligence—where cooperation on data can lead to enormous business opportunities and scientific and medical breakthroughs—security is also going have to focus on enabling organizations to leverage, collaborate on and monetize their data without being exposed to privacy breaches, giving up their intellectual property or having their data misused. Cybersecurity alone is not going to be enough to secure our most sensitive data or our privacy. Data must be protected and enforced by technology itself, not just by cyber or regulation. The very technology compromising our privacy must itself be leveraged to bring real privacy to this data-driven age”—Rina Shainski, Co-founder and Chairwoman, Duality Technologies

AI is a dual-use technology

AI-driven chatbots will go rogue. In 2019, cyber criminals and black hat hackers will create malicious chatbots that try to socially engineer victims into clicking links, downloading files or sharing private information. A hijacked chatbot could misdirect victims to nefarious links rather than legitimate ones. Attackers could also leverage web application flaws in legitimate websites to insert a malicious chatbot into a site that doesn’t have one. In short, next year attackers will start to experiment with malicious chatbots to socially engineer victims. They will start with basic text-based bots, but in the future, they could use human speech bots to socially engineer victims over the phone or other voice connections”—Corey Nachreiner, CTO, WatchGuard Technologies

“While next-gen technology like Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) are transforming many enterprises for the better, they’ve also given rise to a new breed of ‘smart’ attacks. The ability to scale and carry out attacks is extremely enticing to cybercriminals, including use of intelligent malware. The rise in next-gen threats means that security professionals must be extra vigilant with detection and training against these threats, while also adopting new methods of automated prevention methods”—John Samuel, Senior Vice President and Global Chief Information Officer, CGS

“Cyber defenders have been researching and working on their machine learning/AI/deep Learning for a long time. We expect over the next 5 years that these technologies will also empower adversaries to create more powerful and elusive attacks through a new generation of tools, tactics and procedures. While AI/ML-savvy offensive cybercriminals are in their infancy, this is like any other business. They will invest in whatever provides them the greatest return. Unlike defenders, those on the offense are willing to collaborate and share innovation freely, which could increase rapid development and innovation”—David Capuano, CMO and VP Sales, BluVector

“Automation is the name of the game in security and machine learning is here to help. AI is all about automating expert systems, and security is all about experts answering some form of the question: ‘Does this matter? Does this alert matter? Is this vulnerability risky?’ Machine learning will help filter out the noise, so that the limited number of practitioners out there can use their time most efficiently”—Michael Roytman, chief data scientist, Kenna Security

“Recent updates to exploit kits, specifically natural language and artificial intelligence capabilities, has made the automation of highly convincing and unique social engineering emails a very simple process. Meaning, an attacker can upload a file with one million email addresses and can automate the creation of effective and unique phishing messages to send out to victims”—Brian Hussey, VP of Cyber Threat Detection and Response, Trustwave SpiderLabs

When it comes to using AI in cybersecurity, be wary. AI offers companies huge potential, but it is a largely untapped area. If you do plan to implement it, do a proof of concept to make sure that it integrates into your company’s environment, ensuring that you’re getting the maximum value”—Joan Pepin, CISO and VP of Operations, Auth0

“The focus on artificial intelligence in cybersecurity has led to an arms war, with vendors ratcheting up claims about the number of models or features to sensational levels. In 2019, the focus will shift from quantity to quality of features. Both vendors and their users will recognize that fewer, more precise features, can improve threat detection rates, while ensuring virtually zero false positives”—Adrien Gendre, North American CEO, Vade Secure

As AI-enabled apps continue to proliferate, companies will face a rise in accidental vulnerabilities. Expect to hear about more breaches that aren’t a result of a hack, but can be mapped back to developers leaving large data pools (which power AI-enabled applications) accidentally unprotected. Companies need to be vigilant when working with large data pools, especially customer data, that feed AI in services like Amazon, Facebook and Google, and always double check their configurations”—Alex Smith, Director of Security Products,Intermedia

“With fraud attack rates expected to continue to increase in 2019, costing e-commerce retailers billions of dollars, AI is poised to play a huge role in stopping bad actors in real-time before they strike. Artificial intelligence and machine learning, enhanced by human research, have the ability to protect online merchants from abuse at both the account level and the point of transaction.  AI-driven solutions are becoming a necessity because they instantly prevent fraud, enabling retailers to scale and keep up with the e-commerce giants without sacrificing the consumer experience. Finally, fraud prevention models that use AI can be personalized based on a nuanced understanding of each merchant’s specific pain points and historical data”—Michael Reitblat, Co-Founder and CEO, Forter

The emerging global cyber war

Terrorist-related groups will attack population centers with crimeware-as-a-service. While terrorist-related groups have been tormenting organizations and individuals for years, we anticipate more potentially destructive attacks in 2019. Instead of breaking systems with ransomware, adversaries will leverage new tools to conduct harmful assaults on targeted subjects and organizations. From attacks on data integrity that essentially kill computers to the point of mandatory hardware replacements, to leveraging new technology for physical assaults such as the recent drone attack in Venezuela, attack surfaces are growing and enemies will take advantage. To combat this, organizations must take inventory of their attack landscape to identify and mitigate potential threats before they are exploited. Malcolm Harkins, Chief Security and Trust Officer, Cylance

“We expect nation-state threats to increase significantly in 2019, particularly targeting critical infrastructure. Critical infrastructure systems are extremely vulnerable to both cybersecurity and physical security risks. State-sponsored threats and high-level hackers are constantly looking to gain access to the critical infrastructure of nations worldwide, with the intent of hitting some of our most valuable systems (national security, public health, emergency communications, and more)”—Mike McKee, CEO, ObserveIT

“The nature of cyberwarfare is changing. Russia has led the way in the use of targeted cyber actions as part of larger objectives, and now other nation states are looking to follow the same playbook. While a direct cyberwar is not on the horizon, there will continue to be smaller proxy cyber wars as part of regional conflicts where larger nation state actors provide material support to these smaller conflicts. These regional conflicts will be testing grounds for new tactics, techniques and procedures as larger nation states determine how cyber warfare integrates into their larger military objectives. Nation states will also start experimenting more this year in adding ‘disinformation’ campaigns as part of their cyber warfare efforts. These kinds of attacks will make true attribution more difficult”—Sean McNee, Senior Data Scientist, DomainTools

“As the cyber threat landscape intensifies, adversaries will continue to discover new avenues for attacks. Although satellites aren’t the most common attack surface, it is important for industry professionals to acknowledge the capabilities that threat actors hold over them. Security concerns continue to grow within the satellite industry, with execs even forming a government-backed clearinghouse to share information on cyber threats to space assets. From military satellites to GPS technology and even communication satellites, adversaries are able to conduct targeted attacks to gain access to these crucial systems—some of which are highly classified networks. As these threat actors refine their skills, we anticipate major attacks on satellite systems as a new form of nation-state warfare”—John Cassidy, CEO and Co-Founder, King & Union

The year of protected privacy, finally?

Managing privacy will be the new normal, like securing data or paying taxes. Privacy will continue on a similar path as the evolution of cybersecurity. The number of breaches and privacy-related incidents will continue to rise, up and to the right. This rise will be comprised of peaks and valleys. Like with security, a standard of constant privacy will become the new normal. For example, while many organizations treated GDPR as a project, with a finite end, compliance is a continuous exercise that requires the same focus and vigilance as security or taxes”—Chris Babel, CEO, TrustArc

Consumers will start to reclaim control and monetize their data. Ownership of customer data will transition away from businesses and back toward customers themselves, and new services will emerge that empower customers to even monetize their own personal data and rent it back to companies. Data is the fuel that powers AI, and customers will realize they have the power to drive their own AI-based experiences by reclaiming data control”—Dr. Rob Walker, vice president, decision management and analytics, Pegasystems

“GDPR was a great first step, but global regulation and governance still remain a complex web. The United States will continue to fall further and further behind in competency and international relations as our federal compliance efforts simply aren’t moving fast enough to meet worldwide requirements. Countries where privacy is prioritized and seamlessly integrated will see the most optimal growth”—Tomas Honzak, Chief Information Security Officer, GoodData

“Data protection legislation will continue to influence societal expectations on security, which will trickle down to companies and their supply chains.  Consumers have always felt protective of their data, but with new legislation redefining the data landscape, consumers have grown more confident in demanding their data be treated with respect, that its uses are kept visible and clear, and that it is used only as they agreed. The pressure these new societal expectations will exert cannot be overstated, both on public-facing companies and through them all the way down their supply chains. Make no mistake, security and data handling are seen now by all successful companies to be as critical to business and contracts as confidentiality and liability limits have always been”—Geoff Forsyth, CTO, PCI Pal

There will be a lot more focus on privacy and security of connected cars. The information from the connected car is arguably more sensitive than our credit card information – where do we go, when do we go there, when are we home, where do we shop and work, where do our kids go to school and what locations do we go to at what time. There will be breaches of this personal information and bad things that happen as a result. There will be more of the takeover scenarios where an external (bad) actor can take over the technology. This too will result in backlash and involvement of political and legal entities to begin to make laws and precedents. What can law enforcement access and discover to use for investigation purposes?”—Todd Walter, chief technologist, Teradata

“As privacy concerns grow, there will be an increasing interest in privacy-preserving machine-learning techniques that are able train accurate models without compromising privacy”—Prasad Chalasani, Chief Scientist, MediaMath

The global regulatory environment will become more challenging as regulators and governments worldwide continue to strive to implement better data privacy protection as was done with GDPR. While this is a great progress, we’re going to see these governments counter to gain more access to information”—Phil Dunkelberger, CEO, Nok Nok Labs

“As governments implement new data privacy regulations, enterprises will increasingly adopt a ‘Privacy First’ approach to data management. However, the challenges these enterprises will face as they seek to integrate data privacy best practices into their existing applications, as well as new mobile, IoT and other applications, will be significant. Enterprises will need AI-powered, automated, outcome-driven data management solutions to address these challenges if they hope to implement strong data privacy policies without sacrificing productivity or agility”—Don Foster, senior director of worldwide solutions marketing, Commvault

“In 2019, the US government will NOT adopt any new digital privacy policies despite the recent congressional hearings with Twitter, Facebook, Google, etc.”—Kevin Lee, Trust and Safety Architect, Sift Science

The Cloud changes everything and everything is connected… and vulnerable

“Your smart fridge will start scamming you. IoT-connected appliances such as refrigerators and washing machines already produce unattended payments that the user cannot personally verify. Fraudsters see this vulnerability now and will begin to take advantage of it”—Uri Rivner, Chief Cyber Officer, BioCatch

“In 2019, the two main targets for cyber-attackers will be the cloud and user devices. Operating systems on user devices provide more functionality than ever before, making them more vulnerable and an easy target for attackers. At the same time, users will expect more flexibility and the ability to work with any OS, any application, and on any device. As organizations look provide security, privacy, and productivity, they will have to shift to a new, ‘zero trust’ device architecture”—Tal Zamir, CEO, Hysolate

“IoT, in its current state, is not secure. There are secure devices out there, but they are the exception rather than the rule. Perhaps more concerning is that there are no revolutions in IoT security on the horizon. IoT will continue to be vulnerable in 2019”—Erez Yalon, Head of Security Research, Checkmarx

“A marked shift from network security towards identity-based application security will take place next year. The cloud causes traditional control planes to become obsolete. From firewalls and IPS’s to host-based security tools, current technologies cannot be implemented in an effective and constructive manner. Application identities, in a similar process that user identity underwent in the last couple of years, will conquer the main stage”—Ran Ilany, CEO, Portshift

“With Waymo, Cruise, Uber and other autonomous vehicle industry players rushing to the market and expanding previously limited pilots to wider scale public deployments, we predict that a self-driving car used ‘in production’ will be hacked. The immediate implications are unlikely to be life-threatening, however, they will only strengthen concerns about a potential nightmare scenario like car ransomware”—Nir Gaist, CTO and co-founder, Nyotron

Teams will shift to prioritizing cloud-delivered security solutions over traditional appliance-based point products. In addition, teams will shift to simplifying security architectures by prioritizing solutions that provide consolidated feature sets that would have traditionally required numerous separate point products. This will be driven by a vastly expanded attack surface and necessary operational efficiency for understaffed teams”—Gene Stevens, CTO & Co-Founder, ProtectWise

“From Windows to IoTs, Apple and Microsoft have invested colossal amounts in information security to make it very difficult for attackers to enter. In addition, due the accelerated growth in the number of IoT vendors and a severe lack of regulation, significant investments are now being made in developing breakthrough attack capabilities in this field”—Eilon Lotem, CTO, SAM Seamless Network

IoT-enabled device innovation will continue to outpace the security built into those devices and Federal government regulation will continue to inadequately define the laws and fines required to affect change. State-level regulations will be enacted to improve the situation, but will likely fall short in impact, and in many cases, only result in a false sense of consumer confidence with respect to the security of these devices”—Carolyn Crandall, Chief Deception Officer, Attivo Networks.

Cyber breaches will have increased impacts on corporate stock prices, especially in the technology and cyber security sector. The rate at which we’re seeing attacks, and the breadth of the impact is alarming but as of yet haven’t had a large impact on stock prices. However, this will soon change as organizations complete their digital transformation and move to the cloud. Once this happens, a breach is going to have a larger impact on their revenue and as a result a detrimental effect on stock price. Another impact of companies moving operations and revenue to the cloud is we’re going to see more criminal and state organizations going after cybersecurity companies to infiltrate code in their distribution base or take them offline to get to the corporations themselves”—Stan Lowe, Global CISO, Zscaler

“Consumers and legislators alike are increasingly aware of the cyber risks facing the automotive industry as vehicles become increasingly connected.Due to the growing number of susceptible entry points in today’s connected cars, it is only a matter of time before the automotive industry experiences further significant cyber-related product recalls. Moving into 2019, it is imperative that OEM and Tier 1 suppliers ensure robust cyber security protections over the course of the vehicle lifespan. A multi-layered, end-to-end security solution that enables over the air system update capabilities will become the norm. Now is the time for automakers to be proactive and take the wheel in deploying effective solutions for automotive cyber security”—Yoni Heilbronn, CMO, Argus Cyber Security

“Cloud and DevOps transformations will rapidly gain pace in 2019, increasing the risk at the web application layer for enterprises. The reason for this increase is simple: the application layer used to be mostly static assets like marketing websites, but flash forward to today, it is now often the primary way an enterprise interacts with their customers (via full featured web applications or APIs that back mobile apps). This massive shift in functionality comes an equally massive shift in risk. The number one lesson for CISOs is that the transformation to cloud and DevOps will be successful if you can shift your security program from being a blocker to an enabler and focus on making your application and DevOps teams security self-sufficient”—Zane Lackey, Co-Founder and CSO, Signal Sciences

Endpoint security will be redefined by detection and response features (EDR), plus managed detection and response (MDR) services. Endpoint prevention (EPP) has been king of the hill for years, now more than 80% of these solutions fall behind on requirements to provide a combined prevention, detection, investigation, response, system management, and security hygiene as a solution set via a single agent for Windows, macOS and Linux systems. Less than 20% of organizations have the resources and skills for mature EDR solutions which will drive the need for MDR services to the majority of companies, even more so for 24/7 coverage”—Tom Clare, Senior Product Manager, Fidelis Cybersecurity

“With IoT growth posing huge unknown risks to enterprises with the introduction of 5G, businesses will increasingly need to invest in both technology and employee training in order to prepare for the next generation threat landscape. What’s more is that 5G will not only give rise to new threats, but it will also provide cyber criminals with new opportunities to carry out attacks that we have seen grow in popularity over the years with greater force and impact. With this in mind, even an organization that ‘does everything right’ to combat threats posed by 5G could still be impacted just as easily as those that are less security savvy”—James Willett, Vice President of Technology, Neustar

“As IoT innovation continues to blossom, more and more IoT devices will continue to get involved in DDoS attacks in 2019. Routers and cameras are the major types of IoT devices involved in DDoS attacks, with routers making up 69.7% of IoT devices exploited to launch DDoS attacks, and 24.7% of cameras in 2017. This is because a great number of routers and web cameras have been introduced into production and living environments, with no sufficient security measures enforced. We have every reason to believe that attacks leveraging the IoT will become more diverse in the future”—Guy Rosefelt, Director of Product management for Threat Intelligence & Web Security, NSFOCUS

“With the number of IoT technologies in the workplace beginning to outnumber conventional IT assets, there is an ever-increasing probability that these devices will be used as entry point by malicious actors to further compromise corporations for data breaches. Expect in 2019 to see this come to reality and several breaches will be directly tied to installed IoT technology”—Deral Heiland, IoT Research Lead, Rapid7

Industrial control systems are the wild-west of cybersecurity at the moment. These systems control factories, buildings, utilities, etc.  Most systems have little-to-no protection, and best practices are still being adopted very slowly. They also represent extremely high-value targets, especially from a strategic point of view.  A few new companies have entered the landscape, but it is still an extremely young industry”—Bryan Becker, application security researcher, WhiteHat Security

“At a time where nearly every device is connected to the internet, vendors should be taking security seriously. Too many of these products, toys, and phone apps that connect to the cloud in an insecure or unencrypted fashion and are at risk. Security issues have been plaguing the IoT market from the very beginning and it will only continue to exacerbate in 2019. IoT manufacturers will continue to race to introduce new products before their competitors bypassing secure coding practices resulting in products that add risk to corporate environments”—Karl Sigler, Threat Intelligence Manager, Trustwave SpiderLabs

“It’s important to consider the role of certificates in a world of connected devices. Nations (and more U.S. states) will follow California’s lead and enact legislation requiring security for IoT networks. This is particularly important for the healthcare, transportation, energy, and manufacturing sectors, which face the highest risk. The legislation stops short of prescribing strong forms of authentication—but thankfully, consortium groups such as the Open Connectivity Foundation and AeroMACS have championed the use of strong certificate-based authentication in their best practice standards for IoT—Damon Kachur, Vice President of IoT, Sectigo

“It may not seem like a big deal for an attacker to compromise your smart-lights, but those can connect to your smart home management device (e.g., Google Home, Amazon Echo), and from there propagate throughout both your physical and notional personal networks. And those networks can be tied to even larger ones that could result in high-profile DDoS attacks. Every added device is an added attack surface, and we’re in for a very rude awakening in the near future”—Ken Underhill, Master Instructor, and Joe Perry, Director of Research, Cybrary

Cybersecurity skill set transformation

“As IT organizations embrace public cloud environments, the threat of cyber-attacks and malicious attempts is a growing phenomenon. However, a gap still exists between the industry’s needs and what can be achieved with the available workforce. As cloud increasingly becomes a part of every IT environment, 2019 will be a key year for re-skilling the workforce, educating new talent and making the right moves to face the cyber challenge”—Avishai Sharlin, General Manager, Amdocs Technology

The role of CISO will become intertwined with CTO. Security will need to integrate into the operations of a business if it is to become an enabler rather than a blocker of innovation. The same can be said for the blurred lines between the roles of the CISO and CTO. We have seen time and again the c-suite take the brunt of the fallout following high-profile security breaches – where the buck used to stop long before the CEO, the fallout from a security breach increasingly takes senior management along with the security and teaching teams. As a result, the distinction between the traditional roles of the CISO and CTO will become yet more gray next year”—Ivan Novikov, CEO, Wallarm

“Security is increasingly starting at the developer level, a trend that will only grow next year. As an industry, we’ve realized that security should lie at the heart of any digital transformation initiative and should never be an afterthought but built-in by design. The code should be secure, as well as the design and processes. DevSecOps should be applied for applications as well as the cloud, infrastructure and work with partners. Organizations will look to create more security ambassadors at the developer level next year who can advocate for employee awareness around the individual’s role in overall security”—Brent Schroeder, CTO Americas, SUSE

“In 2018, cybersecurity was more widely accepted as a board level topic and senior executives became more aware about its impact on achieving business goals and brand protection. Looking toward 2019, boards will want to see objective measurement and validation of program effectiveness, and will continue to bring on independent cybersecurity advisors or add team members with experience in cybersecurity, putting more pressure on CISOs. As a result, the effectiveness of cybersecurity programs will rely more and more on CISOs and their ability to partner with the board and communicate security needs to them. CISOs that can communicate a clear strategy and a measurable plan will have increased support, as well as funding for key initiatives”—Andrew Howard, CTO, Kudelski Security

“It’s no surprise that we are currently in a massive deficit of qualified cybersecurity talent. In 2019, we will see a more modern approach to recruiting and retention in the cybersecurity workforce to fill this void and create more diversity. We will see an uptick in apprenticeship programs, more diverse training, recruiting practices and federal funding to help bridge the enormous talent and diversity gap the industry has today“—Jason Albuquerque, CISO, Carousel Industries

The ever-evolving cybersecurity landscape

“The security industry tends to look at future trends as monumental shifts in attack methodologies, security technologies, or predictions. In reality, shifts in attack methodologies, security technologies, and observations tend to be incremental. Spending 20% of your time enhancing controls on the security essentials can easily yield 80% of your security improvements. The remaining time should be spent on exploring more advanced technologies that can help fill some of the more niche gaps in your security program. In the coming year, shifts in attacks will be incremental if the same old attacks continue to work as they have in the past”—Jason Rebholz, Senior Director at Gigamon

In 2019, we will see advances in mobile biometric sensors. The industry has dipped its toe in the water in regards to fingerprint sensors being placed underneath phone screens as a solution to eliminate the “home button,” expect to see these screen sensors cannonball into becoming the norm. We may even see Samsung extend their capability with Iris beyond phone unlock and Samsung apps. There will be a battle as to which biometric is best, face or fingerprint, with focus on usability rather than performance rates, ultimately this will come down to user preference as to which is more convenient for individuals and fits better with their use cases”—John Callahan, CTO, Veridium

The demand for affordable, managed security service providers will increase dramatically in 2019 due to a rise in attacks on small and medium sized businesses as a result of successful monetization of ransomware, crimeware and extortion by criminal organizations. With the shortage of available security professionals in the workforce, one of the only places SMB’s will be able to turn to in 2019 are MSSPs”—Sharon Reynolds, Chief Information Security Officer, Omnitracs

”In 2019, healthcare organizations will be the number one target for attackers. The evolution of attacks has made it much harder to secure the industry, creating and growing an entire ecosystem that lends itself to multiple forms of fraud that the attacker can profit off of. For example, in healthcare, when protected health information (PHI) is stolen, attackers are able to steal identities, gaining access to medical information, which the attacker either uses or sells to then obtain prescriptions to be traded or sold illegally”—Bob Adams, cybersecurity specialist, Mimecast

“New, high-profile breaches will push the security industry to finally solve the username/password problem. The ineffective username/password conundrum has plagued consumers and businesses for years. There are many solutions out there—asymmetric cryptography, biometrics, blockchain, hardware solutions, etc.—but so far, the security industry has not been able to settle on a standard to fix the problem. In 2019, we will see a more concerted effort to replace the password solution all together”—Marcin Kleczynski, Founder and CEO,Malwarebytes

“In 2019 we will see an evolution in the two-factor authentication (2FA) process that directly addresses some of the most discussed fraud attacks. It’s a documented fact that the use of 2FA to stop unauthorized account access has exponentially decreased account takeover fraud around the globe, but as fraudsters have evolved, so too must the techniques used to combat them. The increasing prevalence of SIM swap fraud and porting fraud (where attackers take over an end-user phone number so they can intercept one-time passcodes) has led to more collaboration between online businesses and mobile network operators, who can tell those businesses (in real-time) when a SIM swap or porting change has occurred. What we will see as 2019 unfolds is the use of that data to augment 2FA, which will ultimately ensure the continued growing adoption of this important security step by both businesses and their users”—Stacy Stubblefield, Co-Founder and Chief Innovation Officer, TeleSign

“Year-end cyber predictions often focus on specific threat categories and whether or not to expect an increase or decrease in their activity. 2019, however, promises a more fundamental shift in the cyberthreat landscape, for example the impact of social media as an exploding vector for malicious activities and the implications for businesses protecting their assets. Cybersecurity is not an IT problem, it is far wider than just ‘computers’ and the threats ahead in 2019 will make this painfully obvious”—Raj Samani, Chief Scientist and McAfee Fellow, McAfee

“Fraud attacks continue to rise, and we can expect to see them increase in volume up to 2-3X in the coming year. In addition to an increase number of attacks, we anticipate cyber criminals will leverage new tactics to fool retailers and consumers. We will continue to see them utilizing compromised data obtained from data breaches, but beyond that we can anticipate the use of account take over efforts like attacking small and medium-sized online merchants that don’t have proper eCommerce fraud risk technologies, and attacking online merchants with high speed velocity, identity takeover, and brute force high volume attempts”—Steven Gray, Head of Payments, Tax and Fraud, Radial

In 2019, there will be continued consolidation of companies in the security sector, especially for those that have developed technologies that relate to Digital Identities (DIs), including the on-boarding of individuals behind the DIs, the authentication of the individuals behind the DIs (MFA), and the continual management of privileges and access (IAM)”—Todd Shollenbarger, Chief Global Strategist, Veridium

“Small organizations are finally realizing that they need to be as prepared as large organizations when it comes to cybersecurity, making it no longer an IT problem but a larger business challenge within every organization. Additionally, we will see small businesses’ approach to cybersecurity impacting larger organizations through the supply chain vector. Hackers will take advantage of smaller organizations, which often fuel larger business’ supply chains, because they typically have security vulnerabilities that can be more readily exploited than larger ‘targeted’ companies”—Brian NeSmith, CEO and co-founder, Arctic Wolf Networks

“Because security has not been built into established industries like utilities, these sectors are an easy target across the globe and a prime mark for attackers looking to engage in cyber warfare. While their vulnerability has been well-documented, I believe the industry won’t take the threat seriously until something significant occurs—but by then, it will be too late. As we head into 2019, expect this threat to intensify until it finally boils over and results in action. By 2023, Threat X predicts there will be a major attack on a US utility that will finally force the industry to address these vulnerabilities”—Bret Settle, CEO, Threat X

“Risk management is going to become an extremely critical topic for both the public and private sector next year.  As a nation, we are facing complex geopolitical issues and state-sponsored attacks targeting our businesses and government on an enormous scale. Large financial institutions and Silicon Valley companies have already experienced billions of dollars in losses due to decisions being made without effective Enterprise Risk Management. Data is both an asset and a liability and next year we are going to see the regulatory environment become even more complex around data governance, which will see Enterprise Risk Management become a huge priority for the c-suite and board”—David Pigott, Chief Compliance Officer, Neustar

Source: https://www.forbes.com/sites/gilpress/2018/12/03/60-cybersecurity-predictions-for-2019/#57c3994b4352

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